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肺结核

 

 

肺结核Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis has probably always been an insidious disease on the Faroe Islands with a relatively high mortality. 结核病可能一直是一个阴险的疾病的法罗群岛与一个相对较高的死亡率。But about the end of the 19th century, it suddenly spread with almost epidemic proportions. 但是大约十九世纪末,它突然蔓延几乎流行的程度。Especially when the Faroese started the large scale fishing with ships, and men lived together in narrow conditions on the sloops, there was an immense risk of infection. 特别是当法罗人开始了大规模的捕鱼船只,和男人一起住在狭窄的条件对单桅帆船,有一个巨大的感染的风险。One man could infect an entire ship's crew. 一个人可以感染整艘船的船员。It did not help that seemingly healthy people could be carriers of the disease.它没有帮助,看似健康的人可能是疾病的携带者。

People feared the disease. 人们担心这种疾病。Originally it was assumed that it was hereditary – fair assumptions, as it often were members of the same family who got the disease. 最初它认为这是遗传的,公平的假设,因为它经常被同一家庭的成员谁获得了这些疾病。But when people realized that it actually was infectious, the fear became even more intense. 但当人们意识到,它实际上是有传染性的,恐惧变得更加激烈。The infected individuals were shunned like poison, and the poor people who became sick sometimes had to suffer in isolation and solitude. 被感染的人回避像毒药,可怜的生病的人有时不得不遭受孤立和孤独。This also caused that some people tried to cover up that they had the disease, which lead to even more infection.这也导致一些人试图掩盖他们的疾病,它导致更大的感染。

The Sanatorium in Hoydalar在Hoydalar的疗养院
In 1908 a tuberculosis sanatorium was built in Hoydalar near Tórshavn, and people from all over the Faroes were brought there. 在1908年,一个肺结核疗养院建于Hoydalar Torshavn附近,人们从法罗群岛被送来的。There was no effective threatment for the disease, the patients were taken care of, placed in roofed verandas every day to get as much fresh air as possible, fed properly and had a lot of exercise and rest. 没有有效的threatment疾病,病人的照顾,放置在屋顶阳台每天获取尽可能多的新鲜空气,美联储正确并且尽可能有很多的锻炼和休息。The doctors from Tórshavn consulted the sanatorium a couple of times a week, but in the thirties, the Dane Dr. Lynge was hired to run the chest clinic at Queen Alexandrine's Hospital in Tórshavn and the sanatorium in Hoydalar. 医生们从Torshavn请教了疗养院每周好几次,但在30多岁,戴恩Lynge博士是雇来运行胸部诊所医院的Torshavn一统亚历山大女王和疗养院在Hoydalar。On the first stamp we see some of the first patients in the sanatorium in Hoydalar and parts of the buildings. 在第一枚我们看到最早的一些病人在疗养院在Hoydalar和零件的建筑物。In the front you can see one of the roofed verandas, where the patients were placed in beds for several hours a day, swept in blankets.在前你可以看到其中的一个屋顶阳台,那里的病人被安置在床上几个小时一天,横扫的毯子。

Dr. MagnussenMagnussen博士
In 1936 Dr. Vilhelm Magnussen was appointed specialist in tuberculosis, and it is he more than anybody else, who deserves the honour that the terrible disease was exterminated on the Faroes. 在1936年Vilhelm Magnussen博士被任命为结核病专家,这是他超过其他任何人,谁值得纪念,可怕的疾病被消灭的法罗群岛。Magnussen was born in Saksun on Streymoy in 1904. Magnussen出生在1904年Saksun Streymoy上。12 years old he was sent to Tórshavn to attend secondary school, and then high school in Sorø, Denmark. 12岁的他被送往Torshavn参加中学,然后Sorø高中,丹麦。He then became a medical student and when he finished his studies in 1929, Magnussen worked at øresunds Tuberkulosehospital where he got his final examination as specialist in tuberculosis.他成为一个医学专业的学生,当他完成他的研究在1929年,Magnussenøresunds Tuberkulosehospital工作,他得到了他的期末考试作为结核病专家。

When Magnussen was appointed, the tuberculosis was more widespread on the Faroes than ever. 当Magnussen被任命,肺结核是更广泛的法罗群岛上比以往任何时候。There was, as already mentioned, no efficient cure, and in those early years he used a common technique to "blow" air into the chest to make the infected lung rest. 还有,正如前面提到的,没有有效的治疗,早年他使用一种常用技术“打击”空气进入胸部感染肺部休息。Magnussen was however aware of the way the disease spread, and he started his great task to find as many people who carried the infection as possible. 然而Magnussen是意识到疾病传播的方式,他开始了他的伟大任务找到尽可能多的人尽可能进行感染。This was done by "poking", which means that they poked the skin on people and put "tuberculine" on the scratch. 这是通过“戳”,这意味着他们的皮肤上戳人,把“tuberculine”的划痕。If people were infected by TB, this would provoke an allergic reaction, which meant that the person in question was "positive", and risked to develop regular tuberculosis. 如果人被感染了结核病,这将引起过敏反应,这意味着这个人的问题是“积极的”,并可能发展常规肺结核。The tests were performed by Magnussen and his helpers on their constant travels around the Faroe Islands.这个测试是由Magnussen和他的助手在他们周围不断地旅行,法罗群岛。

Dr. Magnussen also advocated compulsory tests of sailors. Magnussen博士还主张强制测试的水手。In 1938 the Faroese Parliament therefore passed a law which forced every active sailor to make a TB-test once a year – otherwise they simply could not sign on the ships. 1938年,法罗群岛的议会因此通过了一项法律迫使每一个活跃的水手做出结核病测试一年一次,否则他们只是不签署的船只。From the start of the 20th century, scientists had tried to develop an effective vaccine against tuberculosis. 从20世纪初的时候,科学家曾试图开发一种有效疫苗肺结核。But the vaccine did not become available on the Faroes before 1946, and Dr. Magnussen now started an intense campaign. 但疫苗不能成为可在1946年之前的法罗群岛,Magnussen博士现在开始一场激烈的竞选。He travelled all around the islands with his ward sisters and checked and vaccinated anyone who came out negative in the tests. 他差不多走遍了整个岛屿与他的病房姐妹和检查和接种疫苗的那些负面测试中走了出来。In 1950 came the final breakthrough, as scientists developed medicine which could cure tuberculosis. 在1950年最后的突破,因为科学家研制的药物可以治疗肺结核。In combination with the effective vaccination programme, the disease was finally eradicated. 结合有效的疫苗接种计划,最终根除的疾病。In 1955 the campaign stopped, and in 1961 the Tuberculosis Sanatorium moved to smaller premises at the Main Hospital in Tórshavn. 1955年的竞选活动停止,在1961年,肺结核��养���搬到较小的前提的主要医院在Torshavn。The old buildings in Hoydalar were taken over by the Faroese Highschool.旧的建筑在Hoydalar接管了法罗群岛的高中。

On the second stamp we see Dr. Magnussen checking a young fisherman with the X-ray apparatus – a situation familiar to every elderly Faroese sailor. 在第二个邮票我们看到年轻的渔夫Magnussen博士检查与x射线机——一个情况熟悉每个年迈的法罗群岛的水手。The other picture on the stamp symbolizes the other reason for the eradication of tuberculosis, vaccination of all healthy children and grown ups on the Faroes.另一幅画在印章上象征着其他原因根除结核病,疫苗接种的所有健康的儿童和成年人的法罗群岛。

Anker Eli Petersen安加伊菜彼得森

Technical Details技术细节
Issue Date:发行日期: 11.02.200811.02.2008
Designer:设计师: A E Petersen一个E彼得森
Printer:打印机: LM Group CanadaLM集团加拿大
Process:过程: Offset Lithography胶版印刷术
Colours:颜色: Full colour彩色
Size:大小: 40 x 29mm40 x 29毫米
Values:价值观: 14.50kr基米-雷克南14.50


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